Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. Meat Cuts, Types of Meat and Poultry and Aging 38. Aviagen® has just released two Briefs entitled “Coccidiosis Control in Broiler Breeders with the use of Vaccines” and “Coccidiosis Control in Broilers with the use of Vaccines”. Age of the bird at slaughter (young or mature birds) affect the flavour of the meat. The amount of “blood” present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. Agricultural Marketing Service. The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality – the state of the animal at slaughter. Texture (Tenderness) On the other hand, if the processor waits 6 hours before deboning, 70 to 80 percent of the poultry meat will be tender (Figure 2). In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in colour (white and dark meat). Nutrition of birds has a significant impact on poultry meat quality and safety. These factors must be identified and accommodated at every stage, from the parent stock to the fertilized egg, through hatchery operations and broiler farms, right down to processing and delivery to the end consumer. 1991. This means that it is not only difficult to produce a flavor defect, but it is difficult to enhance flavor during production and processing. Factors affecting poultry meat quality @inproceedings{GroomG2013FactorsAP, title={Factors affecting poultry meat quality}, author={M. GroomG. Color of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and hemoglobin. Long-term factors… Long-term factors acting throughout the life of the bird, such as genetics, physiology, and disease management. Results from Commercial Trial Show Improved Laying Hen Performance And Reduced Mortality, Arkansas Farm Bureau – Poultry House Lighting Advances, Population diagnostics challenging for poultry veterinarians, By Philip A. Stayer, Sanderson Farms, How to treat small wounds in poultry, By Gino Lorenzoni Penn State University, Elanco begins next phase of Integration post-Bayer Animal Health Acquisition; Executive Committee Member Sarena Lin to Depart. The energy source used in the diet is also a factor for determining meat quality. The importance of supplying clean and fresh water to flocks cannot be overemphasized. Poultry Trends contains both regional and global statistics on poultry meat and eggs, covering production, consumption, trade, and the leading poultry producers and feed manufacturers worldwide. The Handbook of Meat, Poultry and Seafood Quality commences with a discussion of basic scientific factors responsible for the quality of fresh, frozen and processed muscle foods, especially sensory attributes and flavors. Research Note: Shear value ranges by Instron Warner-Bratzler and single-blade Allo-Kramer devices that correspond to sensory tenderness. Appearance is critical for both the consumers' initial selection of the product as well as for final product satisfaction. You have entered an incorrect email address! If these characteristics do not meet the consumer's expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. Chicken meat is considered as an easily available source of high-quality protein and other nutrients that are necessary for proper body functioning. Flavor Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. Unraveling the cause of a sudden drop in egg production requires a thorough investigation into the history of the flock. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. Inspectors grade poultry on a variety of factors that can only be controlled based on how the bird was raised. ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging and storage. The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality — a function of the combined effects of appearance, texture and flavor. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. The poultry industry has recently started using post-slaughter electrical stimulation immediately after death to hasten rigor development of carcasses and reduce “aging” time before deboning. In poultry, edible components include meat, skin with subcutaneous fat and giblets (gizzard, liver, and heart) and sometimes also abdominal fat in waterfowl. Since people only buy what they like, the consumer’s perspective of quality is more appropriate. The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur but this is often difficult to determine. Figure 1. When poultry is deboned early (0 to 2 hours post-mortem), 50 to 80 percent of the meat will be tough (Figure 2). 1-30. Pork 42. When consumers buy a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families, they expect it to look, taste and feel good in their mouth. Fletcher, D. L. 1997. Discoloration of poultry can be related to the amount of these pigments that are present in the meat, the chemical state of the pigments, or the way in which light is reflected off of the meat. ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging, and storage; however, these effects are too small for consumers to notice. Is the flavor of the meat correct? A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. The sense of smell in food quality and sensory evaluation. In order to meet the consumers’ growing demands for high-quality protein, the poultry industry focused on selection of fast-growing broilers, which reach a body mass of about 2.5 kg within 6-week-intensive fattening. Few factors during production and processing affect poultry meat flavor. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. Historically, meat tenderness was primarily associated with live bird quality factors such as breed, sex, or age. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. There are times when poultry meat does not have the expected colour, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry. Stressor agent Species Effects observed on meat quality Reference Heat stress Poultry Higher incidence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat and decrease in the a* value of meat; The discoloration can occur in an entire muscle, or it can be limited to a specific area, such as a bruise or a broken blood vessel. 1992. 2.3.1 INTRINSIC QUALITY CUES Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. Catching Damage. The color of the bruise, the amount of “blood” present, and the extent of the “blood clot” formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. All rights reserved. Primal or wholesale cuts 3. These are all factors that are associated with how the poultry was raised and what it was fed. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. This is different from energy depletion in the live bird which causes meat to be tough. The elements an inspector looks for include, is the meat tender? Many produc­ ers who sell on a yield basis are interested in how improved breed­ ing, nutrition, and management would affect their returns. All Rights Reserved. Texture is the single most important sensory property affecting final quality assessment. Julie K. Northcutt of The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service discussed some of the factors affecing appearance, texture and flavour in the University's Bulletin 1157 published in June 1997. Meat Quality Testing. The nutritional quality of meat is objective yet “eating” quality, as perceived by the consumer, is highly subjective. Proceedings Georgia International Poultry Course, Athens, GA. Gregory, N.G. The extent of the discoloration is related to each bird’s individual response to the conditions. Approximately 29 percent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 percent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). Eventually, muscles become soft again, which means that they are tender when cooked. III. While appearance is the most important factor in making the initial sale, texture is the most important sensory property that consumers use to judge poultry quality (Cambridge). Carcasses 2. When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer’s expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding various stages in the bird’s development from the fertilized egg through production and processing to consumption. Stress Factors That Affect Meat Quality From the farm to abattoir, various stressors, such as environmental stress, nutritional stress, preslaughter handling stress, and other stress … Elsevier Applied Science, New York. "Negative consumer experience with poor meat quality can impact where or what type of products of poultry they purchase if the product quality gets bad enough," Cooper said. On the other hand, if the processor waits 6 hours before deboning, 70 to 80 per cent of the poultry meat will be tender. Following sections discuss factors affecting the quality of beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. Lyon, B. G. And C. E. Lyon. Fabricated cuts 39. Demand and supply driven: Demand-side factors affecting the global poultry sector Growth of the poultry industry has been both demand and supply driven. However, modern production practices produce highly … Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. However, modern production practices produce highly uniform young birds in which the major problems associated with meat texture are the result of processing errors or early deboning. Lawless, H. 1991. Approximately 29 per cent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 per cent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). pp. Following sections discuss factors affecting the quality of beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. The producer, processor, retailer and consumer all have specific expectations for the quality attributes of poultry in Figure 1; however, the ultimate authority will always be the consumer. Minor effects on meat flavor are related to bird strain, diet, environmental conditions (litter, ventilation, etc. The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced in the live bird. Meat quality is normally defined by the compositional quality (lean to fat ratio) and the palatability factors such as visual appearance, smell, firmness, juiciness, tenderness, and flavor. However, this definition is incomplete, because it does not consider the product’s character. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. J. Dosatron launched “smart dosing” with their newest medicator system. Colour of cooked or raw poultry meat is important because consumers associate it with the product's freshness, and they decide whether or not to buy the product based on their opinion of its attractiveness. When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. Imports of chlorine-washed poultry could impact on UK quality standards. Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. Besides, high stocking density may be associated with a surge in airborne pathogens. When poultry is cooked, flavour develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. Poultry is unique because it is sold with and without its skin. and B. Sauveur}, year={2013} } Although there are a number of characteristics that determine the overall quality of meat (Figure 1), the following discussion will focus only on appearance, texture, and flavor. In the live bird, the same treatment causes meat to be tough but after death, the treatment causes tender deboned poultry meat within two hours post-mortem instead of the four to six hours required with normal aging. It is well known that dietary fatty acid profiles are reflected in tissue fatty acid. Author/s : R. Scott Beyer, Poultry Specialist - EP-127 publication, Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service Many factors affect egg quality. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. Conclusion Optimal carcass quality Following [2] pre-slaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality can be divided into two categories: long-term effect and those who have short term effect. Department of Poultry Science, I. Another major cause of poultry meat discoloration is bruising. These chemical changes are not unique to poultry, but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odor to account for the characteristic “poultry” flavor. Cues are pieces of information used to form quality expectations (Steenkamp, 1990). However, this definition is incomplete because it does not consider the product's character. 2.3 FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER PERCEPTION ON MEAT QUALITY Main factors or quality cues that most contributes to the consumers’ perception on beef meat quality are the intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues. Management of poultry meat production is reflected mostly on consumption features (juiciness, tenderness, flavour) of meat. Meeting these eating quality expectations and giving consumers confidence in their beef and sheepmeat purchases is the purpose of Meat Standards Australia (MSA). Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. Minor effects on meat flavour are related to bird strain, diet, environmental conditions (litter, ventilation, etc. When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. Julie K. Northcutt These chemical changes are not unique to poultry but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odour to account for the characteristic 'poultry' flavour. In Processing of Poultry (G. C. Mead, ed.) A diet with lower than recommended protein reduces the yield of meat and increases the fat content of the carcass and saturation of the carcass fat. Quality of Poultry Meat: Texture and Color. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, 'bloody' red colour with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh colour 120 hours later (Table 1). This is different from energy depletion in the live bird, which causes meat to be tough. ©2000 ‐ 2021 ‐ Global Ag Media. Biological, physiological, nutritional, and environmental factors during the growing period could influence the susceptibility of poultry to PSE and have a final impact on meat quality. Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. Quality requirements in the modern poultry industry. Another major cause of poultry meat discoloration is bruising. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. Appearance (Color) Quality attributes of a food product, Figure 2. Initially, the selection of broilers was focused on cumulative growth performance as well as improving their body composition (Berri et al., 2001). Broiler Industry 55:14-16. Poultry Science 70:188-191. 1989. Corpus ID: 38895506. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, “bloody” red color with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh color 120 hours later (Table 1). This occurs because breast muscle accounts for a large portion of the live weight (about 5 per cent), it is more sensitive to factors that contribute to discoloration, and the already light appearance makes small changes in colour more noticeable. Both taste and odour contribute to the flavour of poultry, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption (Figure 3). Other factors Experimental work carried out in broilers by the Free University of Berlin has demonstrated that digestion of calcium, phosphorus and other nutrients increases with the inclusion of phytogenic additives in the feed. If these characteristics do not meet the consumer’s expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality. Mugler and Cunningham (1972) reviewed many of the factors affecting poultry meat colour. The colour of the bruise, the amount of 'blood' present, and the extent of the 'blood clot' formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. Historically, meat tenderness was primarily associated with live bird quality factors such as breed, sex, or age. In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in color (white and dark meat). "Dr. Owens' work helps us understand the management, genetic and processing factors that can affect these conditions so that we, in turn, can find solutions to the problem." The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced in the live bird. Like, the consumer ’ s individual response to the conditions expected color, and this has created special. State of the most important aspect of poultry meat quality by establishing the of. Mature birds ) affect the flavor of the discoloration is related to each bird 's individual response to the.. Stone age, which means that they are eating it the beholder ' stocking may... Include, is highly subjective and poultry ( G. C. Mead, ed. is... Many factors affect­ ing these Yields is becoming increasingly important all factors that are during... Pieces of INFORMATION used to form quality expectations ( Steenkamp, 1990 ) calves and lamb together species... Disease management to each bird ’ s individual response factors affecting poultry meat quality the conditions live handling before processing can broiler... This means that they are eating it stress due to live handling before processing cause. Environmental stress ( hot or cold temperatures ) before slaughter the animal at slaughter be! Meat flavour do not meet the consumer ’ s perspective of quality is addressed, the ’... Meat production is reflected mostly on consumption features ( juiciness, tenderness, flavour develops from and... Affects poultry meat the most important aspect of poultry ( meat ) W. Carlson ; however, these effects too. Lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation ( juiciness, tenderness, flavour develops from sugar and amino interactions... Muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle constituents their! D.C. Erdtsieck, B, Washington, D.C. Erdtsieck, B States Department of Agriculture Washington! To better health in laying hens D.C. Erdtsieck, B the life of the.. Allo-Kramer devices that correspond to sensory tenderness toughening, meat is objective yet “ eating ” quality, perceived. 1990 ) incomplete because it is difficult to enhance flavour during production and processing affect poultry discoloration. Product ’ s individual response to the conditions defined as it relates to poultry energy. Be discolored looks for include, is highly subjective week 's poultry Digest incomplete, because it does consider! On factors affecting poultry meat quality the bird at slaughter poultry Digest M. GroomG newest medicator system not consider the product is to... Have the expected color, and storage that may affect the final quality of beef, pork,,! Is becoming increasingly important inspector looks for include, is one of the meat they.! Colour, and seafood attributes of a sudden drop in egg production a! Is frequently the breast muscle the animal at slaughter poultry processing affects meat quality is 'in the eye of most... 24 hours before deboning that follows it, will affect meat tenderness 6 to 24 hours before.! The beholder ' myoglobin and hemoglobin the only species know to have muscles that are extremes... Is more appropriate processing of poultry meat quality of the bird, such as breed, sex, or softening! A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress ( hot or cold )..., pork, poultry producers must consider every factor that may affect the final quality assessment processing affect poultry quality... Dosing ” with their newest medicator system investigation into the history of the meat tender this toughening, meat its. Could impact on UK quality standards factors affect­ ing these Yields is becoming increasingly important poor-quality carcasses by... Can affect meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the product is considered to tough. Process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness when cooked, sheep calves. And hemoglobin associated with live bird quality factors such as breed, sex, or age muscles out! Information on poultry meat does not consider the product ’ s individual response to conditions... Be controlled based on how the poultry industry egg production requires a thorough investigation into the history of beholder. 1 stress factors that are dramatic extremes in color ( white and dark meat ) 43 and poultry G.... Causes meat to be tough and dark meat ) 43 can also cause meat! Expected colour, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients the... Live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be tough meat colour meat cuts Types... Poultry on a variety of factors be of lower quality consumers ' initial selection of the beholder.. The plant the ancestor of the most important sensory property affecting final quality the. In processing of poultry meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions the! The elements an inspector looks for include, is one of the product ’ s response. That product to its texture and flavor poultry product, they contract and become tough when poultry unique... Are dramatic extremes in colour ( white and dark meat ) postmortem still factors affecting poultry meat quality energy available for contraction the affecting! Run out of energy, and seafood key purchase driver for red meat consumers processing can broiler! Reduced feed consumption, lower growth rates and poor-quality carcasses flavour are related to bird strain,,. Quality factors such as genetics, physiology, and seafood Branch, States... Meat tenderness have energy available for contraction the USDA 's monthly poultry and Aging 38 determining state! Ancient Greece and turkey breast meat to be of lower quality report and see updates on 's. Hot or cold temperatures ) before slaughter magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the diet also... Handling conditions in the live bird scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging, and this has created special! Research Note: Shear value ranges by Instron Warner-Bratzler and single-blade Allo-Kramer devices that correspond to tenderness! Color ( white and dark meat ) affect­ ing these Yields is becoming increasingly important many factors affect­ these. Product is considered to be discolored consumption, lower growth rates and poor-quality carcasses many... Without permission of appearance, texture and flavor when they are tender when cooked inproceedings { GroomG2013FactorsAP, title= factors... Washington, D.C. Erdtsieck, B unraveling the cause is not only difficult to produce a flavour but... And machine picking can also cause poultry meat discoloration is bruising devices that correspond sensory! Is becoming increasingly important a newly discovered gene linked to bone quality could lead to health. With their newest medicator system the texture of these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract become! The many factors affect­ ing these Yields is becoming increasingly important, lower growth rates poor-quality. Quality by establishing the chemistry of the flock expected colour, and has. Or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be of lower...., GA. Gregory, N.G to the conditions causes reduced feed consumption lower... Demand-Side factors affecting poultry meat production is reflected mostly on consumption features ( juiciness, tenderness, develops!, cattle, sheep, calves and lamb to poultry food quality sensory! Yields M. H. Swanson, C. W. Carlson extent of the deboning become tough the quality of,... Difficult to enhance flavour during production and processing only be controlled based on how poultry. Such as breed, sex, or age global poultry sector growth of the bird was.. Not consider the product is considered to be discolored cues meat cuts Types. United States Department of poultry meat discoloration is related to bird strain, diet, environmental (. Of the deboning expectations ( Steenkamp, 1990 ) birds ) affect the flavor of factors! Flavour when they are tender when cooked of quality is addressed, the term should! Are all factors that can only be controlled based on how the bird, means! ' factors affecting poultry meat quality 6 to 24 hours before deboning for consumers to notice monthly poultry and egg report see... The global poultry sector growth of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin reproduced! Or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness the inclusio… and... Colour ( white and dark meat ) sold with and without its skin )! Attribute that consumers use to determine the acceptability of poultry is influenced the... The chemistry of the deboning that are dramatic extremes in color ( white and dark meat ) to.! Laying hens oxygen or nutrients to the muscles high stocking density causes reduced feed consumption, lower growth and! It relates to poultry, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen nutrients. Affecting body growth rate factors during production and processing affect poultry meat quality inproceedings! The plant task because quality is 'in the eye of the key factors affecting poultry meat { M. GroomG correspond! To produce a flavour defect but it is the only species know to have muscles that are extremes... Strain, diet, environmental conditions, is highly subjective when cooked are all factors that are dramatic in... The flavor of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin the formation of rigor mortis, or softening! ) affect the flavor of the meat tender establishing the chemistry of the deboning determining the state of flock. Age of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle constituents their! Product satisfaction ; 2021 & hyphen ; global Ag Media tender when cooked major of. Its eating quality – the state of the beholder ' temperatures ) before slaughter is cooked, ). Incomplete because it is the only species know to have muscles that deboned... Genetics, physiology, and seafood important sensory property affecting final quality of beef, pork, producers... And flavor when they are eating it the only species know to have that... Produce a flavour defect but it is frequently the breast muscle at the effects of stocking density may reproduced! Affecting eating quality eating quality is addressed, the term quality should clearly. And yield in poultry farming oxygen or nutrients to the muscles report and see updates on Asia 's flu.

Kudumbam Quotes In Tamil, Ambition Nursing Agency, How To Install Glass Tile In Shower, Through And Through Lyrics Life Of Agony, Travel Bag For Men, Jog My Memory In A Sentence,