The Committee of Public Safety During the Reign of Terror, France was ruled by a group of men called the Committee of Public Safety. For example, the sans-culottes sent letters and petitions to the Committee of Public Safety urging them to protect their interests and rights with measures such as taxation of foodstuffs that favored workers over the rich. [10][5], Some historians argue that such terror was a necessary reaction to the circumstances. In March rebellion broke out in the Vendée in response to mass conscription, which developed into a civil war. No matter what the French may claim, if one chooses to open his eyes and read about this tragedy, they are most certainly welcome. The National Convention was bitterly split between the Montagnards and the Girondins. On 10 November (20 Brumaire Year II of the French Republican Calendar), the Hébertists organized a Festival of Reason. Configuración The Reign of Terror began on September 5, 1793 with a declaration by Robespierre that Terror would be "the order of the day." [42], The reign of the standing Committee of Public Safety was ended. Maximilien Robespierre: Maximilien Robespierre was born May 6, 1758, in Arras, France, and died on July 28, 1794 at the guillotine. It was not until after the execution of Louis XVI and the annexation of the Rhineland that the other monarchies began to feel threatened enough to form the First Coalition. The fear of the guillotine and the mob justice led to self exile of several nobles and clergy. [37] The leaders of the Terror tried to address the call for these radical, revolutionary aspirations, while at the same time trying to maintain tight control on the de-Christianization movement that was threatening to the clear majority of the still devoted Catholic population of France. Others, however, cite the earlier time of the September Massacres in 1792, or even July 1789, when the first killing of the revolution occurred. [23] Though mostly ignored, Louis XVI was later able to find support in Leopold II of Austria (brother of Marie Antoinette) and Frederick William II of Prussia. "War and Terror in French Revolutionary Discourse (1792-1794).". These criticisms were often used by revolutionary leaders as justification for their dechristianisation reforms. "Thermidor" (2nd ed.). On 27 July 1793 Robespierre became part of the Committee of Public Safety. Marjorie Bloy. [32] The sans-culottes fed the frenzy of instability and chaos by utilizing popular pressure during the Revolution. For other uses, see, Significant civil and political events by year. Between his arrest and his execution, Robespierre may have tried to commit suicide by shooting himself, although the bullet wound he sustained, whatever its origin, only shattered his jaw. On 8 and 13 Ventôse (26 February and 3 March 1794), Saint-Just proposed decrees to confiscate the property of exiles and opponents of the revolution, known as the Ventôse Decrees. Among those charged by the tribunal, about half were acquitted (though the number dropped to about a quarter after the enactment of the Law of 22 Prairial on 10 June 1794). Internet History Sourcebooks. The Dantonists were arrested on 30 March, tried on 3 to 5 April and executed on 5 April. History of France § Counter-revolution subdued (July 1793–April 1794), History of France § Revolutionary France (1789–1799), France § Revolutionary France (1789–1799), Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Robespierre and the terror: Marisa Linton reviews the life and career of one of the most vilified men in history", "Maximilien Robespierre: On the Principles of Political Morality, February 1794", Maximilien Robespierre: Justification of the Use of Terror, Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws, 1748, 9 Thermidor: The Conspiracy against Robespierre, Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media, Voltaire, Selections from the 'Philosophical Dictionary', https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2014/entries/montesquieu/, http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199959853.001.0001/acprof-9780199959853-chapter-8, "Maximilien Robespierre | Biography, Facts, & Execution", L’armée de l’an II : la levée en masse et la création d’un mythe républicain, http://www.historyhome.co.uk/c-eight/france/coalit1.htm, https://alphahistory.com/frenchrevolution/declaration-of-pillnitz-1791/, http://people.loyno.edu/~history/journal/1983-4/mcletchie.htm#22, https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/montesquieu-spirit.asp, "The Absolutism of Louis XIV as Social Collaboration: Review Article", "Robespierre and the terror: Marisa Linton reviews the life and career of one of the most vilified men in history, (Maximilien Robespierre)(Biography)", https://link.springer.com/book/10.1057%2F9780230294981, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reign_of_Terror&oldid=1000495051, Short description is different from Wikidata, History articles needing translation from French Wikipedia, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles needing additional references from September 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. A combination of food scarcity and rising prices led to the overthrow of the Girondins and increased the popular support of the Montagnards, who created the Committee of Public Safety to deal with the various crises. Many of his contemporaries commented on Danton's financial success during the Revolution, certain acquisitions of money that he could not adequately explain. [31] Once the Montagnards gained control of the National Convention, they began demanding radical measures. The “Great Terror” that followed, in which about 1,400 persons were executed, contributed to the fall of Robespierre on July 27 (9 Thermidor). It is the contention of this "Reign of Terror" series to provide accounts and evidence that the nation has endured under a shadow government of ruling elites; especially, since the elimination of a President, who dared challenge the interests of the true masters of the establishment. On 8 Messidor (26 June 1794), the French army won the Battle of Fleurus, which marked a turning point in France's military campaign and undermined the necessity of wartime measures and the legitimacy of the Revolutionary Government. [40], On 23 August 1793 the National Convention decreed the levée en masse:[41], Les jeunes gens iront au combat ; les hommes mariés forgeront les armes et transporteront les subsistances ; les femmes feront des tentes et serviront dans les hôpitaux ; les enfants mettront le vieux linge en charpie ; les vieillards se feront porter sur les places publiques pour exciter le courage des guerriers, prêcher la haine des rois et l’unité de la République. The French republican calendar was adopted as part of a program of de-Christianization. [4] By then, 16,594 official death sentences had been dispensed throughout France since June 1793, of which 2,639 were in Paris alone;[2][5] and an additional 10,000 died in prison, without trial, or under both of these circumstances. Voltaire's warnings were often overlooked, though some of his ideas were used for justification of the Revolution and the start of the Terror. [26] This series of defeats, coupled with militant uprisings and protests within the borders of France, pushed the government to resort to drastic measures to ensure the loyalty of every citizen, not only to France but more importantly to the Revolution. Updates? Government by terror was imposed in response to two perceived dangers: public panic and popular violence provoked by food shortages and rising prices; and the threat posed by traitors at a time when both war and civil war confronted the nation. They fled. These were the infamous September Massacres when Parisian mobs killed thousands of suspected royalists and set the scene for the events to come, when Madame La … Émigrés (EHM•ih•GRAYZ), nobles and others who had fled France, hoped to undo the Revolution and restore the Old Regime. Anti-clerical sentiments increased during 1793 and a campaign of dechristianization occurred. The Reign of Terror: Was it Justified? Reign of Terror, period of the French Revolution from September 5, 1793, to July 27, 1794, during which the Revolutionary government decided to take harsh measures against those suspected of being enemies of the Revolution (nobles, priests, and hoarders). The tide would not turn from them until September 1792 when the French won a critical victory at Valmy preventing the Austro-Prussian invasion. Many of the early battles were definitive losses for the French. The ones who don’t offer will be sent to death and that would stop people from following them in their footsteps. The dates July 1789, September 1792 and March 1793 are given as alternatives in. "[30] The threat of defeat and foreign invasion may have helped spur the origins of the Terror, but the timely coincidence of the Terror with French victories added justification to its growth. The Reign of Terror was characterized by a dramatic rejection of long-held religious authority, its hierarchical structure, and the corrupt and intolerant influence of the aristocracy and clergy. Religious elements that long stood as symbols of stability for the French people, were replaced by views on reason and scientific thought. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. The sans-culottes' violently demonstrated, pushing their demands and creating constant pressure for the Montagnards to enact reform. The Reign Of Terror: Was It Justified? On September 5, 1793, the Convention decreed that “terror is the order of the day” and resolved that opposition to the Revolution needed to be crushed and eliminated so that the Revolution could succeed. Accessed 26 October 2018. During the Reign of Terror, at least 300,000 suspects were arrested; 17,000 were officially executed, and perhaps 10,000 died in prison or without trial. However, conscription raised a large army that turned the tide of the war in France’s favor. In July 1794 Robespierre was arrested and executed as were many of his fellow Jacobins, thereby ending the Reign of Terror, which was succeeded by the Thermidorian Reaction. Alternatively, he may have been shot by the gendarme Merda. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. On 6 April 1793 the National Convention established the Committee of Public Safety, which gradually became the de facto war-time government of France. Favourite answer. French Revolution. Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws defines a core principle of a democratic government: virtue—described as "the love of laws and of our country. After their victory in expelling the Girondins, Parisian militants “regenerated” their own sectional assemblies by purging local moderates, while radicals such as Jacques-René Hébert and Pierre-Gaspard Chaumette tightened their grip on the Paris Commune. Montesquieu. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In any case, Robespierre was guillotined the next day, together with Saint-Just, Couthon and his brother Augustin Robespierre. 27 August 1791. ), Shusterman, Noah. Well phrased by Albert Soboul, "terror, at first an improvised response to defeat, once organized became an instrument of victory. The French Revolution was an important movement in world history. "Terror, Vengeance, and Martyrdom in the French Revolution: THE CASE OF THE SHADES - Oxford Scholarship", 2014, accessed 1 May 2018. Under the pressure of the radical sans-culottes, the Convention accepted to institute a revolutionary army, but refused to make terror the order of the day. [citation needed], The fall of Robespierre was brought about by a combination of those who wanted more power for the Committee of Public Safety (and a more radical policy than he was willing to allow) and the moderates who completely opposed the revolutionary government. France was in steep debt with a … Questions and answers about the Reign of Terror. Accessed 23 October 2018. "[21], Though some members of the Enlightenment greatly influenced revolutionary leaders, cautions from other Enlightenment thinkers were blatantly ignored. Emmet Kennedy. In Paris a wave of executions followed. On 27 August 1791, these foreign leaders made the Pillnitz Declaration, saying they would restore the French monarch if other European rulers joined. Many long-held rights and powers were stripped from the church and given to the state. In contrast, some Parisian workers and small shopkeepers wanted the Revolution Almost 17,000 people were killed by official executions during the Reign of Terror, with historians estimating hundreds of thousands more deaths as part of the revolts throughout France or as unrecorded murders. [8] The members of the convention were determined to avoid street violence such as the September Massacres of 1792 by taking violence into their own hands as an instrument of government.[5]. "Modern History Sourcebook: Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws, 1748." It is called the Reign of Terror because of Robespierre. While the sans-culottes did not have direct power, the gathering appeared amid the fear of the significance of the relationship between political figures, and the subjects of the state. Jeremy D. Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution, (London: Routledge, 2016), 64. Omeka RSS. In the spring of 1794, it eliminated its enemies to the left (the Hébertists) and to the right (the Indulgents, or followers of Georges Danton). 224 Chapter 7 In addition, factions outside the Legislative Assembly wanted to influence the direction of the government too. On September 5, 1793, they mounted another mass…, The events in France gave new hope to the revolutionaries who had been defeated a few years previously in the United Provinces, Belgium, and Switzerland. When the State rules under a reign of terror, the citizens have a natural right to revolt. Ozouf, Mona. [4], Violent period during the French Revolution, This article is about the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution. [14], Rousseau's Social Contract argued that each person was born with rights, and they would come together in forming a government that would then protect those rights. "[18] In Robespierre's speech to the National Convention on 5 February 1794, titled "Virtue & Terror", he regards virtue as being the "fundamental principle of popular or democratic government. Leopold, II, and Frederick William. The leaders felt that their ideal version of government was threatened from the inside and outside of France, and terror was the only way to preserve the dignity of the Republic created from French Revolution. The great confusion that arose during the storming of the municipal Hall of Paris, where Robespierre and his friends had found refuge, makes it impossible to be sure of the wound's origin. A Web of English History. What Robespierre calls "terror" is the fear that the justice of exception shall inspire the enemies of the Republic. #6 Guillotine became known as “The National Razor” Invented by Antoine Louis, guillotine is a device to carry out executions by beheading.It consists of tall upright frame with a heavy blade which is dropped to sever the head of the victim. [citation needed], For a long time it was considered that the Terror ended on 9 Thermidor year II (27 July 1794) with the fall of Robespierre and his supporters and their execution the following day. Following the execution of Louis XVI, the more radical revolutionaries, the Jacobins, were concerned that foreign and domestic groups would threaten the continuing of the revolution. "Robespierre, "On Political Morality"," Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, accessed 19 October 2018, Rothenberg, Gunther E. "The Origins, Causes, and Extension of the Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon.". Georges-Jacques Danton, one of the great revolutionary leaders, was also denounced and executed. They regrouped and planned to attack France. People suspected of anti- revolutionary activities were sent to the guillotine in where thousands were killed. [13], Enlightenment thought emphasized the importance of rational thinking and began challenging legal and moral foundations of society, providing the leaders of the Reign of Terror with new ideas about the role and structure of government. Laws were passed that defined those who should be arrested as counterrevolutionaries, and committees of surveillance were set up to identify suspects and issue arrest warrants. However, for the most part, it destabilized the country, rather than solidifying the gains of the Revolution and leading to a virtuous and happy republic, as its authors had hoped. Prior to the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror (1793–94), France was governed by the National Convention. They advocated for arrests of those deemed to oppose reforms against those with privilege, and the more militant members would advocate pillage in order to achieve the desired equality. The Coalition, consisting of Russia, Austria, Prussia, Spain, Holland, and Sardinia began attacking France from all directions, besieging and capturing ports and retaking ground lost to France. "War and Terror in French Revolutionary Discourse (1792-1794).". [36] A Festival of Reason was held in the Notre Dame Cathedral, which was renamed "The Temple of Reason", and the old traditional calendar was replaced with a new revolutionary one. "During the Reign of Terror, at least 300,000 suspects were arrested; 17,000 were officially executed, and perhaps 10,000 died in prison or without trial."[6]. Madison – Plato – Robespierre all understood that the Despotism is the greatest threat from any government. [15] Drawing from the idea of a general will, Robespierre felt that the French Revolution could result in a Republic built for the general will but only once those who fought this ideal were expelled. On October 7th, in Rheims, the sacred oil of Clovis which was used to anoint French kings was smashed. The arrest of Maximilien Robespierre, July 27, 1794. "The First Coalition 1793-1797." Corrections? This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Reign-of-Terror, UNRV History - Roman Empire - Reign of Terror. New members were appointed the day after Robespierre's execution, and limits on terms of office were fixed (a quarter of the committee retired every three months). The Reign of Terror instituted the conscripted army, which saved France from invasion by other countries and in that sense preserved the Revolution. About 300,000 people were arrested, and 17,000 of them were tried and executed. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [38] The Committee oversaw the Reign of Terror. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. The Reign of Terror took place during the brief period of rule of the urban workers, or 'sans-culottes' , called the Jacobin government because of their alliance with the political Jacobin Club. [9] In February 1794 in a speech he explains why this "terror" is necessary as a form of exceptional justice in the context of the revolutionary government: If the basis of popular government in peacetime is virtue, the basis of popular government during a revolution is both virtue and terror; virtue, without which terror is baneful; terror, without which virtue is powerless. Reign of Terror, also called the Terror, French La Terreur, period of the French Revolution from September 5, 1793, to July 27, 1794 (9 Thermidor, year II). The Committee's powers were gradually eroded. The Reign of Terror is a well-known component of the French Revolution, mostly due to the excessive use of the guillotine to preserve the Revolution. The Terror originated with a centralized political regime that suspended most of the democratic achievements of the revolution, and intended to pursue the revolution on social matters. Georges Danton, the leader of the August 1792 uprising against the king, was removed from the Committee of Public Safety on 10 July 1793. Enlightenment thought emphasized the importance of rational thinking and began challenging legal and moral foundations of society, providing the leaders of the Reign of Terror with new ideas about the role and structure of government. Maximilien Robespierre, Master of the Terror. The Reign of Terror occurred from September of 1793 until July of 1794, and was a time period of extreme violence and paranoia during the French Revolution. By 1789 the French monarchy was nearly powerless and, for all intensive purposes, the National Assembly was the current government of France. "Voltaire, Selections from the Philosophical Dictionary." Baker, Keith M. François Furet, and Colin Lucas, eds. On 9 September the convention established paramilitary forces, the "revolutionary armies", to force farmers to surrender grain demanded by the government. It marked the first time that the lowest class in a country had overthrown the highest class. They had, between them, made the Law of 22 Prairial one of the charges against him, so that, after his fall, to advocate terror would be seen as adopting the policy of a convicted enemy of the republic, putting the advocate's own head at risk. Georges Danton was one of the foremost radical leaders during the French Revolution. As a result, he decided to weed out those he believed could never possess this virtue. According to French historian Jean-Clément Martin there was no "system of terror" instated by the Convention between 1793 and 1794, despite the pressure from some of its members and the sans-culottes. [25] In the time it took for officers of merit to use their new freedoms to climb the chain of command, France suffered. [11] Others suggest there were additional causes, including ideological[12] and emotional. Plato’s Republic was a roadmap to justify the City-State. France began this war with a large series of defeats, which set a precedent of fear of invasion in the people that would last throughout the war. On 24 June 1793 the Convention adopted the first republican constitution of France, the French Constitution of 1793. The excesses of the Reign of Terror combined with the decreased threat from other countries led to increased opposition to the Committee of Public Safety and to Robespierre himself. The 'sans-culottes' saw popular violence as a political right they held. Jean-Clément Martin, La Terreur, part maudite de la Révolution, Découvertes/Gallimard, 2010, p. 14-15. On 13 July 1793 the assassination of Jean-Paul Marat—a Jacobin leader and journalist—resulted in a further increase in Jacobin political influence. While this series of losses was eventually broken, the reality of what might have happened if they persisted hung over France. On 17 September, the Law of Suspects was passed, which authorized the imprisonment of vaguely defined "suspects". Configuración The reign of terror, the period in the French revolution when around forty thousand people lost their lives in the name of the revolution was the climax of the French Revolution. Merriman, John (2004). Voltaire. Maximilien Robespierre, president of the Jacobin Club, was also president of the National Convention and was the most prominent member of the Committee of Public Safety; many credited him with near dictatorial power. [a], The term of "Terror" to describe a period was forged by the Thermidorian Reaction who took power after the fall of Maximilien Robespierre in July 1794,[1][2] to discredit Robespierre and justify their actions. In Paris a wave of executions followed. The tension sparked by these conflicting objectives laid a foundation for the "justified" use of terror to achieve revolutionary ideals and rid France of the religiosity that revolutionaries believed was standing in the way. On 2 June 1793 the Parisian sans-culottes surrounded the National Convention, calling for administrative and political purges, a low fixed-price for bread, and a limitation of the electoral franchise to sans-culottes alone. Reign of Terror. On 16 Pluviôse (4 February 1794), the National Convention decreed the abolition of slavery in all of France and in French colonies. Today historians are more nuanced. A Cultural History of the French Revolution. The government's violence during the Terror may have been an effort to prevent the 'sans-culottes' from taking violence into their hands. In September 1793 price controls were extended to other staple consumer goods, and the armées révolutionnaireswere cre… "[19][20] This was, in fact, the same virtue defined by Montesquieu almost 50 years prior. The Reign of Terror, or the Great Terror, was a massive culmination to the horror of the French Revolution, the gutters flowing with blood as the people of Paris watched with an ntertained eye. The revolution itself was caused by a combination of factors the led to an economic and social crisis that left the French third class little choice but to revolt. Reign of Terror lasted from September 1793 until the fall of Robespierre in 1794. The Reign of Terror also called The Terror was the period of the French Revolution in where the revolutionary government (known as the Jacobin)decided to take strict measures against those being suspected enemies of the revolution. Omissions? For other uses, see, "The Terror" redirects here. Reign of Terror was a period during the French Revolution in which Maximilien-François-Marie-Isidore de Robespierre, leader of the Jacobin Club, clashed heads with the Girondins in an effort to gain control of the vacancy they made on the throne. [39] In reaction to the imprisonment of the Girondin deputies, some thirteen departments started the Federalist revolts against the National Convention in Paris, which were ultimately crushed. Yahoo Search. [34][35] The radical revolutionaries and their supporters desired a cultural revolution that would rid the French state of all Christian influence. The Committee of Public Safety took actions against both. A Web of English History. (Contextualization) Why did the Committee of Public Safety pass the Decree Against Profiteers? As early as May 1793 the National Convention imposed price controls on grain and bread in an effort to ensure an adequate food supply. The Committee's powers were gradually eroded. On 10 October the Convention decreed that "the provisional government shall be revolutionary until peace." In 1793 the ruling Committee of Public Safety suspended the libertarian rights and ideals of the constitution that was still in progress and terror became the government's official stated and voted-upon policy. It ended on July 27, 1794 when Robespierre was removed from power and executed. Yahoo Search Búsqueda en la Web. Soboul cited in Mona Ozouf. On 20 Prairial (8 June 1794) the Festival of the Supreme Being was celebrated across the country; this was part of the Cult of the Supreme Being, a deist national religion. Though some members of the Enlightenment greatly influenced revolutionary leaders, cautions from other Enlightenment thinkers were blatantly ignored. The trial of the Girondins started on the same day, they were executed on 31 October. After their victory in expelling the Girondins, Parisian militants “regenerated” their own sectional assemblies by purging local moderates, while radicals such as Jacques-René Hébert and Pierre-Gaspard Chaumette tightened their grip on the Paris Commune. Bloy, Marjorie. The Reign of Terror (June 1793 – July 1794) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. He opposes the idea of terror as the order of the day, defending instead "justice" as the order of the day. Still uncertain of its position, the committee obtained the Law of 22 Prairial, year II (June 10, 1794), which suspended a suspect’s right to public trial and to legal assistance and left the jury a choice only of acquittal or death. [28] With so many similarities to the first days of the Revolutionary Wars for the French government, with threats on all sides, unification of the country became a top priority. Voltaire's warnings were often overlooked, though some of his ideas were used for justification of the Revolution and the start of the Terror. Later laws suspended the rights of suspects to both legal assistance and public trials and mandated execution of all those who were found guilty. "Maximilien Robespierre, Master of the Terror." Toward the end of the Reign of Terror, Danton was accused of various financial misdeeds, as well as using his position within the Revolution for personal gain. [citation needed] There was the constant threat of the Austro-Prussian forces which were advancing easily toward the capital, threatening to destroy Paris if the monarch was harmed. 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War in France ’ s Republic was a roadmap to justify the City-State ( 20 Brumaire year II of great... To revolt other uses, see, `` the Terror was an extreme set of laws they! Convention was bitterly split between the Montagnards and the French Revolution and protect the country foreign. Jacobin leader and journalist—resulted in a country had overthrown the highest class and updated,... Them for themselves know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( login! ( dir leader and journalist—resulted in a further increase in Jacobin political.. Convention extended price fixing from grain and bread to other essential goods and. Leuwers ( dir in 1794, France was governed by the gendarme Merda prison systems was introduced next,... Democratic government was extremely lacking in the Vendée, and also fixed wages price fixing from grain and to! `` war and Terror in 1794, France: the Spirit of the war was only Prussia Austria. Oversaw the Reign of Terror, depicted in, France was governed by the Committee of Public took! 7Th, in Rheims, the Vendée in response to mass conscription, which the... A campaign of dechristianization occurred lasted – according to some accounts—until after the beginning of the great ''... Losses for the Montagnards to enact reform enact reform was guillotined the next day, defending ``. 1794, France was governed by the Committee of Public Safety was.... War and Terror in 1794 at this point, the Convention: `` let 's make Terror order... From following them in their footsteps 1791 ). committees instituted local terrors be on same... ( Contextualization ) Why did the Committee of Public Safety took actions Against both defending instead `` justice '' the. Festival of reason French Revolution, ( London: Routledge, 2016 ), the reality what. Set up the revolutionary Tribunal and executed Robespierre in 1794, undated engraving turned the tide of war. War-Time government of France enemies of the time, greatly influenced revolutionary as... Of suspects was passed, which gradually became the de facto war-time of! Undated engraving 15 January 2021, at this point, the citizens a! And executed be on the same day, together with Saint-Just, Couthon and his brother Augustin.! Napoleon, 1789–1815 revolutionary Discourse ( 1792-1794 ). contemporaries commented on Danton financial... Contextualization ) Why did the Committee of Public Safety, which saved France from invasion by other and!

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