Cosmological argument, Form of argument used in natural theology to prove the existence of God. Philo 5 (1):34-61. Moreover, that Craig takes his argument too far beyond what his premises allow in deducing that the creating agent is greater than the universe. Kalām Cosmological Argument. ", Premise two: "The universe began to exist.". He states: In reply, Craig has maintained that causal laws are unrestricted metaphysical truths that are "not contingent upon the properties, causal powers, and dispositions of the natural kinds of substances which happen to exist", remarking: A common objection to premise one appeals to the phenomenon of quantum indeterminacy, where, at the subatomic level, the causal principle appears to break down. [59] Craig has since modified his view of the A-theory being necessary for the Kalam, stating that while the Kalam would need to be reformulated, "it wouldn't be fatal" on a B-theory. [27][28] Craig notes: Morriston asserts that causal laws are physical processes for which we have intuitive knowledge in the context of events within time and space, but that such intuitions do not hold true for the beginning of time itself. [52], In the subsequent Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology, published in 2009, Craig discusses the properties of the cause of the universe, arguing that they follow as consequences of a conceptual analysis and of the cause of the universe and by entailment from the initial syllogism of the argument:[53]. Likewise, as the universe began, then it must also have been caused. [33] Craig replies that the phenomenon of indeterminism is specific to the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, pointing out that this is only one of a number of different interpretations, some of which he states are fully deterministic (mentioning David Bohm) and none of which are as yet known to be true. According to the Kalam Cosmological Argument, everything that exists had a beginning, and everything that had a beginning had a cause. "The Caused Beginning of the Universe: a Response to Quentin Smith." Must the Beginning of the Universe Have a Personal Cause? Is there a conclusive argument for the existence of God? A. Borde, A. Guth and A. Vilenkin (2003). ", "Initial Arguments: A Defense of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God", "Cosmological Argument: The Causal Principle and Quantum Physics", "Methuselah's Diary and the Finitude of the Past", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kalam_cosmological_argument&oldid=1000260756, Wikipedia articles that may have off-topic sections from September 2014, All articles that may have off-topic sections, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, If the universe has a cause, then an uncaused, personal Creator of the universe exists who, Therefore, an uncaused, personal Creator of the universe exists, who. Modal forms of cosmological argument is consistent with the universe having an infinite past. See also: al Ghazali, Kitab al lqtisad, with a foreword by Î. 5 It is important to note, however, that the KCA is not intrinsically predicated on any one religion, nor is it restricted to monotheism. Causes and Beginnings in the Kalam Argument. According to Craig, the kalam cosmological argument establishes that A) the God of Christianity exist B) the universe has a cause C) the Big Bang model is false D) the universe is uncaused B) the universe has a … One of the earliest formulations of the cosmological argument in Islamic tradition comes from Al-Ghazali, who writes: Between the 9th to 12th centuries, the cosmological argument developed as a concept within Islamic theology. The Kalam cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. The Kalam Cosmological Argument Meets The Mentaculus Dan Linford Abstract According to the orthodox interpretation of bounce cosmologies, the universe was born from an entropy reducing phase in a previous universe. Hey guys, I'm an atheist and I've recently been looking more in-depth at some arguments for God's existence to challenge myself :) I was already familiar with the Kalam (popularized by William Lane Craig), but I hadn't read that much about it. The term kalam is Arabic and means “eternal.” A second type of cosmological argument, contending for a first orbeginning cause of the universe, has a venerable history, especiallyin the Islamic mutakalliman tradition. The universe began to exist. 90–91, Quentin Smith, "Kalam Cosmological Arguments for Atheism", in Michael Martin (ed. 1): 1. If you are also anything like me this has you thinking about philosophy, apologetics, and the Kalam Cosmological Argument. An infinite amount of time can never truly pass (because infinite time would never run out). Although it hadnumerous defenders through the centuries, it received new life in therecent voluminous writings of William Lane Craig. If you are anything like me, and the vast majority of the country, you are now no doubt stuck at home for the foreseeable future while we ride out this pandemic. Islamic perspectives may be divided into positive Aristotelian responses strongly supporting the argument, such as those by Al-Kindi, and Averroes, and negative responses critical of it, including those by Al-Ghazali and Muhammad Iqbal. According to Kalam cosmological argument, it is precisely as the universe is thought to have a beginning in time that its existence is thought to stand in need of explanation. [14] It reached medieval Christian philosophy in the 13th century and was discussed by Bonaventure, as well as Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologica (I, q.2, a.3) and Summa Contra Gentiles (I, 13). It is named after the kalam (medieval Islamic scholasticism) from which its key ideas originated. The Kalam cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. Modern discourse encompasses the fields of both philosophy and science (quantum physics and cosmology), which Bruce Reichenbach summarises as: Craig defends the first premise as follows:[20][21], According to Reichenbach, "the Causal Principle has been the subject of extended criticism", which can be divided into philosophical and scientific criticisms.[22]. [23][24][25] Oppy states: Mackie affirms that there is no good reason to assume a priori that an uncaused beginning of all things is impossible. The latter would allow the universe to exist tenselessly as a four-dimensional space-time block, under which circumstances the universe would not "begin to exist":[54] The form of the Kalam he presents rests on this theory: Craig has defended the A-theory against objections from J. M. E. McTaggart and hybrid A–B theorists. Andrew Ter Ern Loke, The Kalam Cosmological Argument and Divine Omniscience: an Evaluation of Recent Discussions in Sophia, Sophia, 10.1007/s11841-020-00793-6, (2020). On the topic of virtual particles, he writes: Cosmologist Alexander Vilenkin has stated that even "the absence of space, time and matter" cannot truly be defined as 'nothing' given that the laws of physics are still present, though it would be "as close to nothing as you can get".[39]. J. T. Grieg (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932), 1, 187. Craig concludes that the cause of the existence of the universe is an "uncaused, personal Creator ... who sans the universe is beginningless, changeless, immaterial, timeless, spaceless and enormously powerful"; remarking upon the theological implications of this union of properties. 2. The universe began to exist. [15] Al-Ghazali was unconvinced by the first-cause arguments of Al-Kindi, arguing that only the infinite per se is impossible, arguing for the possibility of the infinite per accidens. Moreover, a primary metaphysical principle states, “out of nothing, nothing comes.” Consider the fact that if something could come from absolutely nothing, then anything … Quantum mechanics does not in fact posit something coming from nothing, but rather things coming from the quantum vacuum–which is not “nothing.” "Inflationary space-times are incomplete in past directions". This feature distinguishes it from other cosmological arguments, such as that of Thomas Aquinas, which rests on the impossibility of a causally ordered infinite regress, and those of Leibniz and Samuel Clarke, which refer to the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Kalām cosmological argument (Persian: برهان الحدوث) or so called argument form temporality (Huduth) is a general term for the theologians' theoretical arguments for the existence of God. One such argument is the kalam cosmological argument. In a review of Krauss's book, he states: Likewise, Craig has argued that the quantum vacuum, in containing quantifiable, measurable energy, cannot be described as 'nothing', therefore, that phenomena originating from the quantum vacuum cannot be described as 'uncaused'. Muslim theologians, when Islam swept over Egypt in North Africa, absorbed the Christian thought that had been in those areas, like in Alexandria, which was … Cosmological Argument - Kalam Argument. Michael Martin disagrees with these assertions by Craig, saying: Andrew Loke has argued against the metaphysical possibility of a beginningless universe as well as that of an actual infinite existing in the real world.[50]. The word “ kalam ” is an Arabic word that denotes medieval Islamic theology. Prometheus Books, 2012. The argument is grounded upon the supposed impossibility of an actual infinity of past events. Given that the Kalam cosmological argument is a deductive argument, if both premises are true, the truth of the conclusion follows necessarily. [1], Since Craig's original publication, the Kalam cosmological argument has elicited public debate between Craig and Graham Oppy, Adolf Grünbaum, J. L. Mackie and Quentin Smith, and has been used in Christian apologetics. If the past were infinitely long, an infinite amount of time would have had to pass before today. G.E.M. Scientific confirmation against a past-infinite universe in the form of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. A classic which has recently been re-polished and re-popularized, it has withstood the test of time in its field. The Kalam Cosmological Argument, as made famous by William Lane Craig, is among the most popular arguments for God among online Christians. Morriston W (2002). This is why the argument is often expanded to show that at least some of these attributes are necessarily true, for instance in the modern Kalam argument given above. He appeals to David Hume's thesis (An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding) that effects without causes can be conceived in the mind, and that what is conceivable in the mind is possible in the real world. Anscombe, '"Whatever has a beginning of existence must have a cause": Hume's argument exposed', Analysis XXXIV (1974), 150. Is God the unmoved mover of Aristotle’s teachings. It’s details the many criticisms of the argument, all in one place: Through the decay of uranium, lead is causedto come into existence, the car factory causes the car to come into existence, and your parents caused you to come into existence. He writes: Philosopher of science David Albert has criticised the use of the term 'nothing' in describing the quantum vacuum. Averroes, Ibn Rushd, The Incoherence of the Incoherence (Tahafut al-Tahafut) London:Luzac, 1954, pp. Rests on the idea that universe has a beginning in time. He writes: According to the atheist philosopher Quentin Smith, "a count of the articles in the philosophy journals shows that more articles have been published about Craig’s defense of the Kalam argument than have been published about any other philosopher’s contemporary formulation of an argument for God’s existence. It was popularized in the western world by William Lane Craig in his book, The Kalām Cosmological Argument (1979). It was popularized in the western world by William Lane Craig in his book, The Kalām Cosmological Argument (1979). 58, Iqbal, Muhammad The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Lahore:Institute of Islamic Culture, 1986, Al-Ghazzali, Tahafut Al-Falasifah (The Incoherence of Philosophers), translated by Sabih Ahmad Kamali. According to Craig, the Kalam Cosmological Argument is constructed as follows: Whatever begins to exist, has a cause of its existence. (2007) Many Worlds in One: The Search for Other Universes, p.175, Aguirre A and Gratton S (2002). Physical Review Letters 90 (15): 151301. Steady-state eternal inflation; Phys. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity P. 469. Everything that begins to exist has a cause of itsexistence. In a critique of Craig's book The Kalam Cosmological Argument, published in 1979, Michael Martin states:[51], Martin also claims that Craig has not justified his claim of creation "ex nihilo", pointing out that the universe may have been created from pre-existing material in a timeless or eternal state. Its historic proponents include Al-Kindi,[8] Al-Ghazali,[9] and St. The second of these premises requires some more explanation. The metaphysical impossibility of an actually infinite series of past events by citing. D 65, 083507. Bonaventure.[10][11][12]. Come … [2] According to Michael Martin, the cosmological arguments presented by Craig, Bruce Reichenbach, and Richard Swinburne are "among the most sophisticated and well argued in contemporary theological philosophy". Whatever begins to exist has a cause. The mathematical impossibility of forming an actual infinite by successive addition. Craig William Lane, Reasonable Faith Christian Truth and Apologetics Third Edition 118-120, Craig William Lane, Reasonable Faith, Christian Truth and Apologetics, Third Edition, pp.120-124, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, A Universe from Nothing: Why There is Something Rather Than Nothing, ‘neo‐Lorentzian interpretation’ of Special Relativity, Professor Mackie and the Kalam Cosmological Argument, Must the Beginning of the Universe Have a Personal Cause? The most commonly used form is “horizontal,” also known as the kalam cosmological argument. If A Theory is correct, all past moments would have to occur before the present, which would vindicate the first premise. If you aren’t familiar with the KCA, here is a version of it: Everything that begins to exist has a transcendent cause of its existence. Smith, Q (1988), "The Uncaused Beginning of the Universe," Philosophy of Science 55:39-57. There are a handful of famous arguments for the existence of a god. I would say no less special than a true beginning of the universe. What is the principle of sufficient reason? [26] This argument has been criticised by Bruce Reichenbach and G.E.M. Francis J. Kovach, 'The Question of the Eternity of the World in St. Bonaventure and St. Thomas – A Critical Analysis', Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 5 (1974), pp. Some have been around for centuries, and new arguments are popping up every day. Professor Alexander Vilenkin, one of the three authors of the Borde-Guth-Vilenkin theorem, writes: Victor J. Stenger has referred to the Aguirre-Gratton model[43] for eternal inflation as an exemplar by which others disagree with the Borde-Guth-Vilenkin theorem. There are a handful of famous arguments for the Philosophy of Science and Religion Martin ( ed insights your., all past moments would have had to pass before today universe, '' of. Also anything like me this has you thinking about Philosophy, apologetics and. 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