0000003654 00000 n 2006. It is massively known for the origin and final destination of trafficked men, women, and children who are forced to labor. Although those from the Eastern European states still resided in desperate economic situations, many also had … �w�L^6�Sݕ5���i�fOK������ct{��2h����܂͞��=��sJ��6�`:���YU�]�9"��+�s�L^��3Gd� vş'�L�0صz�����ۦ�;zgΆݽ*O���. 0000030243 00000 n Open Access This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. (eds.). It is also the world’s most comprehensive resource of governmental anti-trafficking efforts and reflects the U.S. Government’s commitment to global leadership on this key human rights and law enforcement issue. Third, we have a general profile of the trafficking victims (Bertone 1999; Shelley 2005). trailer Caldwell, Gillian, Steven Galster and Nadia Steinozer. “Mental Health of Female Survivors of Human Trafficking in Nepal.” Social Science and Medicine, 66(8): 1841–1847. Altmetric Badge . 1995; Kay 2006; Ashwin 2006; Shvedova 2009). xref Perhaps, the biggest question for the international community about human trafficking is how to effectively combat it. The Duma is the lower house of the Russian legislative branch. It identifies the inefficiencies behind the national and international responses to trafficking and the complications for policymaking associated with the stigma attached to sex workers. By 1993, as newspaper sales were rapidly falling, an erotic publication, “SPID-Info,” emerged as the leader in the printed media with monthly sales of 4 million copies (Namedni 1993). NY: Global Survival Network and International League for Human Rights. “Stopping traffic: exploring the extent of, and responses to, trafficking in women for sexual exploitation in the UK,” Home Office, Police Research Series, Paper 125, London. Behind this legislation is the underlying logic that prostitution essentially represents violence against women (Farley 2004). Surveys by Kleimenov and Shamkov (2005), suggest most trafficked victims are representatives of marginalized groups, like the unemployed, homeless, prostitutes and orphans. Hughes, Donna. “Raba Liubvi pod Zakaz: Polkovnik GRU Komplektoval Zagranichnie Bordeli.” Rossiiskaya Gazeta, March 31. http://www.rg.ru/2009/03/31/rabstvo.html. 1997. Laczko, Frank and June J.H. The New Slave Trade. Human trafficking involves the acquisition and transportation of people to a different geographical locale to profit from their labor (Aronowitz 2001; Repetskaia 2005). Correspondence to Buckley, Mary. According to a women’s group in Moldova, seven out of ten trafficking victims are also victims of domestic abuse (Kara 2009). This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Since the collapse of the Soviet regime, post-communist states have rapidly learned the modern face of slavery. “Of Vice and Men: A New Approach to Eradicating Sex Trafficking by Reducing Male Demand through Educational Programs and Abolitionist Legislation.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 98(2): 653–686. In a new report, the U.S. State Department says Belarus, Iran, Russia, and Turkmenistan remain among the worst offenders of human trafficking and forced labor. Human Rights Review Accessed 19 July 2010. “Human Trafficking: A New Challenge for Russia and the United States,” in Human Traffic and Transnational Crime: Eurasian and American Perspectives. WCIOM (Wserossiiskii Centr Izuchenia Obshchestvennogo Mnenia). 0000002140 00000 n “Human trafficking in the twenty-first century: implications for Russia Europe and the World,” in Gender Politics in Post-Communist Eurasia. This changed in 1986 with the publication of an investigative report in one of the leading Moscow newspapers about the work of elite prostitutes exclusively servicing foreign clients (ibid.). 1999. Some nations like the United States, Italy, and the United Kingdom have provisions for a grace period during which victims are allowed to stay in the country under specific conditions, commonly requiring their cooperation with the law enforcement (Waugh 2006; Simeunovic-Patic 2010). Hughes (2002) and Klopcic (2004), for example, point to the devastating effects of economic downturns and militarized disputes for the increased vulnerability of women and children. 2006. New York: Cornell University. 0000002477 00000 n “Protection and Assistance to Victims of Human Trafficking in Serbia: Recent developments.” European Journal of Criminology, 7(1): 45–60. The majority of the Russian population, including law enforcement officers, underestimates the scale of human trafficking. Among the experts and law enforcement officers who responded to the survey, less than half (43%) believed that women were sexually exploited (ibid.). This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal. 0000009876 00000 n Kozlova, Natalia. Unable to survive, they may turn back to traffickers. The existing anecdotal evidence demonstrates both Russian men and women are ready to blame the victim. International Organization for Migration. The consequences of gender inequality, patriarchic traditions, the mythology of prostitution, and the sexual revolution created a unique combination of factors contributing to the upsurge in sex trafficking and exploitation. Unable to find employment, many women turned to prostitution. Russia, Women and the Market. “From Social Dislocation to Human Trafficking: The Russian Case.” Problems of Post-Communism, 51(6): 14–22. For example, a Russian journalist was severely beaten after publicizing the research of a Russian scholar, Lyudmila Erokhina, on the collusion between traffickers and the tourist industry (Stoecker 2005). Finally, individual countries and the international community are not yet effective in fighting human trafficking or protecting and rehabilitating its victims (Tiuriukanova 2005; Zakhari 2005; Buckley 2009b). The same group of respondents also felt that due to media coverage about women sold into prostitution abroad, potential job seekers should be well aware of this possibility and those who go agree to take the risks (ibid.). 2008. Public Opinion in Russia on the Politics of Human Trafficking MARY BUCKLEY Abstract The growing literature on human trafficking lacks survey data on citizens' attitudes towards it in states of origin. Some college students and young female professionals saw it as an easy way to make extra money while pursuing their main career goals. Alexandr Stulhoger and Theo Sandfort (eds.). Women, however, suffered more severe economic consequences than men. Khodyreva, Natalia. Phil Williams (ed.). When she returned, her mother had died and Katia was homeless. Human Trafficking Law: Russia only has one law that criminalizes human trafficking. 2006. Former sex slaves report that they are rejected by both the society and their own families (Buckley 2009a). These stories are echoed by the accounts of women’s crisis centers’ workers (Waugh 2006). 2009b. “Peacekeepers and Prostitutes: How Deployed Forces Fuel the Demand for Trafficked Women and New Hope for Stopping It.” Armed Forces and Society 33(5). Accounts of victims also revealed that some rescued women were in shock when they found out they would have to perform sex acts, while some knew or at least suspected (Waugh 2006). A female recruiter made arrangements for her to travel abroad for work. “Human trafficking: the unintended effects of UN intervention.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Political Science Association, Manchester Hyatt, San Diego, California, 20 Mar 2008. The lack of strong legislation makes it more difficult to arrest, … The victims fall into the same trap signing up with new traffickers and being re-trafficked. But the numbers are relatively low given the scale of the problem. Tritaki, Panagiota. The grim reality of the post-communist transition hit hard and fast. Freedom came with a new form of modern slavery—human trafficking. This phrase has since become a popular joke, but, as common wisdom goes, there is a grain of truth in every joke (Znamenitoi Fraze 15 Let 2001). 2004. 2007. Psychologically, the avoidance of judgment or condemnation from others that might accompany disclosure may help these survivors cope with their experience (ibid.). “There is no sex in the USSR,” was the answer given by a female audience member on the Russian side. Derks, Annuska. Trafficking in Persons Report The Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report is the U.S. Government’s principal diplomatic tool to engage foreign governments on human trafficking. Restavec: From Haitian Slave Child to Middle-Class American. http://www.rg.ru/2008/11/26/reg-sibir/uzbeki.html. Much of this literature focuses on the mechanisms of trafficking, namely the recruitment, transportation, and exploitation of the victims as well as the criminal networks involved in the business (Caldwell et al. Bishop, Claire. 2006. 2008. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. By then, a number of NGOs like Syostri (Sisters), along with some scholars and a representative from the DumaFootnote 1 pushed for a change in the Russian criminal legislation to include an anti-trafficking law (Shelley and Orttung 2005; Buckley 2009b). Published online: 10 Jan 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12142-010-0188-1, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12142-010-0188-1, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in “Trafficking in Women from the Former Soviet Union for the Purposes of Sexual Exploitation,” in Trafficking and the Gloval Sex Industry. Ryf, Kara. 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To protect people, women and children in particular, from the atrocities of modern slavery, repressive (along with educational) measures may be necessary to deter traffickers as well as men, the primary customers for trafficked women, carelessly buying sex from enslaved women. After placing an ad in a number of local newspapers, he received about 30 calls in 2 days and, subsequently, conducted job interviews with these women. The economic explanation for the expansion of human trafficking, however strong, does not paint the full picture of the problem in the post-Soviet states. 0000000016 00000 n After her father’s death, Katia, who lived with her mother in a small town in Moldova, signed up to work in a foreign country (ibid.). 2004. Human Trafficking in Russia and Other Post-Soviet States. So it’s business as usual. Malakhov, Aleksandr. New York: Routledge. This paper outlines how and why human trafficking is a major human rights and security issue for Russia and the “destination” countries to which traffickers send their victims. Sonia’s Daughters: Prostitutes and Their Regulation in Imperial Russia. The testimony of a 23 year old Moldovan woman, Katia, paints a horrifying picture of the situation those formerly trafficked face upon their arrival home (ibid.). volume 12, pages329–344(2011)Cite this article. Academic research in the region is scarce and mostly has been produced in the past decade (Shelley 2003; Orlova 2004; Stoecker 2005; Shelley and Orttung 2005; Sulaimanova 2006; Buckley 2009a, b). Viuhko, Minna. Mendelson, Sarah E. 2005. Obtaining forged documents or crossing the Russian border takes no more than a bribe. The first answer is poverty. “Russian and Chinese Trafficking: A Comparative Perspective,” in Human Traffic and Transnational Crime: Eurasian and American Perspectives. 2009a. Kay, Rebecca. Shannon, Sarah. x�b```��lq���ac`a��v�Y����0�О}q�$*��mp��S(�bfR|b�ƆV��=M%vN��.h"�9:��Z� Because enormous investigative and legal efforts are needed to rescue women from traffickers, the most efficient first step may be prevention. Khodyreva, Natalia. “Organized Crime and the Business of Migrant Trafficking: An Economic Analysis.” Crime, Law and Social Change, 32: 203–233. Stoecker, Susan. “The Trafficking of Migrant Workers: What are the Links Between Labour Trafficking and Corruption?” International Migration, 42(5): 147–168. They are not even always willing to use the services offered to them by relief groups (Waugh 2006). 0000032991 00000 n Linda Racioppi and Katherine O'Sullivan (eds.). The old Soviet systems had laws against rape and kidnapping, but no laws for domestic abuse or other broad prohibitions that could be used to prosecute traffickers. Portland, OR: Worth. “Ukrainskikh Shkol’nikov Budut Uchit’, kak ne Bit’ Pokhishchennimi.” 2009. Although the effect of any particular publication or broadcast is hard to estimate, stories like this certainly do nothing to change the existing popular misperceptions about human trafficking and sexual exploitation. “Rossiiskaia Milicia: Geroi ili Prestupniki?” Press Release 1540. http://old.wciom.ru/arkhiv/tematicheskii-arkhiv/item/single/13684.html. WikiMili The Free Encyclopedia. Hum Rights Rev 12, 329–344 (2011). Evidence collected by NGOs across the former Soviet states depicts a sad reality for the victims of trafficking even if they escape (Kara 2009). Pages 403-418 Received 31 Aug 2015. 2007; Zimelis 2009; Smith et al. UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime). Allred, Keith J. Unable to find a job yet again, Katia signed up for what she thought was work as a housekeeper in the UK. Contrary to the common belief, research conducted among women who consider working abroad indicates that most, in fact, do not know what kind of work may be in store for them and many have unrealistic expectations (Sulaimanova 2006). Trafficking survivors often make every effort to keep their experience a secret (ibid.). <<3a161f634c61aa4fa2dfbad6c65de6f6>]>> Washington DC: CSIS Press. 2009. Under 18% admitted that they did not know enough to answer the question.Footnote 2 Around 41% of the respondents assigned blame for trafficking on victims while about 41% believed women were duped by criminal gangs or sold into slavery by parents and friends (32.8% and 9.1%, respectively). Although labor trafficking remains the predominant human trafficking problem within Russia, sex trafficking continued. U.S. State Department. Most, however, were convinced that the majority of women going abroad were local prostitutes who went there to make more money (ibid.). St. Petersburg: Aleteiia. “Communism is the grave of prostitution,” was declared by the State Commission to Fight Prostitution in 1919 (ibid.). What follows is an attempt to explicate the factors that contribute to the explosion of human trafficking, especially for sexual exploitation, in Russia and other former Soviet republics. Public opinion in Russia and elsewhere is also negatively biased against victims of trafficking. PubMed Google Scholar. Tsutsumi, Atsuro, Takashi Izutsu, Amod Poudyal, Seika Kato, and Eiji Marui. The status of the profession changed with each new monarch from the criminalization of prostitution to its strict state regulation to the requirement that prostitutes should wear special yellow dresses. Kleimenov, Mikhail and Stanislav Shamkov. The conditions of this work are so deplorable that some activists call it a “slow genocide of women” (Waugh 2006, 64). Men excused themselves by arguing with young girls and women incited sexual assaults with provocative dress, talk, and behavior (Khodyreva 2004; Johnson 2005). 2010. “Human Rights, the Sex Industry and Foreign Troops,” Cooperation and Conflict, 44(1): 51–71. Short skirts, low-cut shirts, high heels, and heavy makeup dominated the fashion trend and were meant to send a concrete message to the rest of the world: I am free, I am sexy, and I am proud of it (Namedni 1988). 2004. Human trafficking in Europe is a regional phenomenon of the wider practice of trade in humans for the purposes of various forms of coercive exploitation.Human trafficking has existed for centuries all over the world, and follows from the earlier practice of slavery, which differed from human trafficking in that it was legally recognized and accepted. Laczko, Frank. As evidence, he told a story of a brothel in Spain that employed Russian prostitutes. Desperate for work, young female college graduates sought employment opportunities abroad. Since the collapse of the Soviet regime, post-communist states have rapidly learned the modern face of slavery. http://www.rb.ru/biz/companies/show/559917. “Znamenitoi Fraze “U Nas v SSSR Seksa Net”—15 Let.” 2001. 0000033703 00000 n Other accounts suggest that trafficked women are representative of the general female population within a particular age group (Shelley 2005). Corruption makes the job of a trafficker much easier and less risky. This view is shared by a number of deputies in the State Duma who argued against the anti-trafficking law on the grounds that trafficked women are somehow unworthy of help (Buckley 2009a). Accessed 17 July 2001. “Kto i Kak Organizuet Seksual’nie Razvlechenia dlia Vzroslikh.” Interview with Olga Bichkova. Pyshschulina, Olga. 2005. Eventually, he reluctantly admitted that forced prostitution might exist, but only to a very limited extent (ibid.). New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Klopcic, Alja. 0000009102 00000 n http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6710053822744889597. And Russia is considered the largest country in the whole world. “Trafficking in persons annual report.” http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprtp/2006/65990.htm. What could possibly explain Katia’s and other re-trafficked women’s behavior? 0000016653 00000 n This expression of female sexuality and freedom occurred as men felt more freedom to violate a woman’s body (Pilkington 1996; Zabelina 1996; Buckley 1997). Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. In fact, most Russians are convinced that women trafficked for prostitution are aware of the potential nature of their employment (Kleimenov and Shamkov 2005). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. In 2012, available data shows 29 convictions for human trafficking … 2003. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Farley, Melissa. Third, assistance from relief groups may be too temporary to help (Waugh 2006). Rapidly growing prostitution was a by-product of the belated sexual revolution. Unemployment, nonexistent under communism, was much higher in the female labor force, and women had more difficulties transferring from the public to the private sector due to the widespread social stigma (Bridger et al. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. “Sexual Violence towards Women,” in Gender Generation and Identity in Contemporary Russia. http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7082897323151509201. Its rankings often ruffle diplomatic feathers. Sanders, Teela. http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2009/cpi_2009_table. Yuliya V. Tverdova. Schloenhardt, Andreas. Studies of human trafficking related to economic and political upheaval, represent a special segment of the economic argument. Bertone, Andrea Marie. Every year between 20,000 and 60,000 Russian women become victims of traffickers, and no less than 500,000 have been trafficked from the country since the collapse of the Soviet Union (Buckley 2009b). Namedni 1961-2003: Nasha Era, March 1. 0000032804 00000 n Meshkov’s conceptualization of sex workers as libido driven, lazy people, who choose prostitution is widespread among the public (Erokhina 2005). The production and distribution of pornography was unregulated, and pornographic videos were widely available. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Tiuriukanova, Elena, and Iosif Dzialoshinskii. 1999. After the abolition of serfdom at the peak of industrialization, freed peasants rushed to the cities in search for work. Human Trafficking in Russia and Other Post-Soviet States. 2005. 2002. Besides the economic and psychological dependency on their captors, this behavior may have a number of explanations. “Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings: The Phenomenon, The Markets that Drive it and the Organizations that Promote It,” European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 9(2): 163–195. The reduction of poverty would diminish the economic incentives associated with human trafficking. 0000008146 00000 n Sex shops sprouted in big cities and drew so much curiosity that the owners were able to charge an entrance fee. 2002. women refuse to involve the authorities because they themselves might face charges (Waugh 2006). Russia has also been an importer of slave labor mostly from Central Asia as Uzbeks and Turkmens get smuggled into Russia and become enslaved as a result of their illegal status. Annually, the total number of trafficking victims around the world approaches 900,000 (U.S. State Department 2006). “Gender Politics in Russia,” in Gender Politics in Post-Communist Eurasia. His major claim was that all of these women had no illusions about the kind of work they would be expected to do and some had been doing similar work in Ivanovo, and viewed the opportunity to move to Moscow as a job promotion. Adapting to Russia’s New Labour Market: Gender and Employment Behaviour. Paid Sex and Patriarchy in Russia,” in Sexuality and Gender in Postcommunist Eastern Europe and Russia. 0000031793 00000 n A 2006 UN report named 127 countries of origin and 137 countries of destination of human trafficking (UNODC 2006). 0 Ekberg, Gunilla. Based on these interviews, he boldly asserted that women who set on the path of prostitution do so because of laziness and desire to attain sexual pleasure and economic prosperity (ibid.). 0000031986 00000 n There are no more important human rights than the right for life and freedom from slavery—the rights brutally violated by traffickers, whose business is perpetuated by the users of slave labor. On November 3, 1989, crowds of people demolished the Berlin Wall. “’Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart’: Prostitution Harms Women Even if Legalized or Decriminalized.” Violence Against Women, 10(10): 1087–1125. 2000. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Richards, Kathy. “Kerbcrawler Rehabilitation Programmes: Curing the ‘Deviant’ Male and Reinforcing the ‘Respectable’ Moral Order.” Critical Social Policy, 29(1): 77–99. “Uzbeshnii Bizness.” Rossiiskaya Gazeta. According to the same report, Ukraine shares the 146th place with Russia as well as Zimbabwe and Sierra Leone, while Moldova is on the 89 place with a score of 3.3 (ibid. Upon their release from captivity, many women are found to be in the violation of immigration laws and returned to their home countries (Waugh 2006; Bernat and Zhilina 2010). Instances of labor trafficking have been reported in construction, manufacturing, logging, saw mills, agriculture, sheep … Although labor trafficking remains the predominant human trafficking problem within Russia, sex trafficking continued. Sexual freedom became politicized as a form of protest against the old regime. Yet, according to Yuliya Tverdova in Human Trafficking in Russian and Other Post-Soviet States (2011, 336-337) those from the former Soviet states differed. 1997. “Human Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation and Organized Procuring in Finland.” European Journal of Criminology, 7(1): 61–75. Accessed 21 May 2010. The evaluation process is complicated by the scarcity of reliable data (Savona and Stefanizzi 2007). The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) released by Transparency International on an annual basis ranges from 0 to 10, with 10 being the least corrupt. “Trafficking in human beings.” Speech, International Conference on Migration, Culture and Crime, Israel, 7 July. Second, a college degree is not a safeguard from naïveté, especially during systemic political and social transition. Now in the late 1980s, sexuality was embraced and celebrated by the younger generation as a symbol of changing times and perestroika. 0000033281 00000 n Google Scholar. She ran away 1 day and returned to Moldova. Slavic women have been trafficked to the sex markets of Western Europe, Asia, and North America. Cadet, Jean-Robert. Post-Soviet Women: from the Baltic to Central Asia. Bitkina, Svetlana. 2009. 2004. Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. “The “Natasha” trade: The transnational shadow market of trafficking in women,” Journal of International Affairs, 53(2): 625–651. Almost 83% admitted they knew little, if anything, about the anti-trafficking policies in Japan, but 47% believed that the women should be strictly regulated versus 45% thought they should be offered protection and support. Russia passed the law in 2003 under President Vladimir Putin but it does nothing other than label human trafficking illegal. Retrieved 11 Sept 2010. Significantly underfunded, relief groups do not typically offer transitional housing, financial support, medical and psychological services, or legal assistance. Despite the fact that many of the exported Russian sex slaves came from desperate economic situations, many of them also have college degrees (Stoecker 2005). The number of rape reports skyrocketed in the late 1980s and early 1990s (Johnson 2005). 0000004561 00000 n Sex Trafficking: The Global Market in Women and Children. “Namedni 1993”. In addition, the rejection of the institution of marriage and family by some prominent communist officials as “bourgeois” and obsolete led to a new surge in prostitution. Kyle, David and Rey Koslowski. 2009. Although the results of the questionnaire revealed a high level of awareness of human trafficking even among the general public (85% at least “heard about cases like this”), only a little over a third of the respondents thought that it was widespread (Kleimenov and Shamkov 2005). Download Citation | Human Trafficking in Russia and Other Post-Soviet States | Since the collapse of the Soviet regime, post-communist states have rapidly learned the modern face of slavery. 2003. 0000004862 00000 n What follows is an attempt to explicate the factors that contribute to the explosion of human trafficking, especially for sexual exploitation, in Russia and other former Soviet republics. Bernstein. 0000013301 00000 n For that same reason, quantitative studies of human trafficking are exceptionally rare (Goździak and Bump 2008), whereas qualitative studies commonly draw on individual accounts of former trafficking victims (Cadet 1998; Bales and Trodd 2008). It is a poll of polls based on a set of surveys mostly conducted among international business elites and country experts, but occasionally supplemented by mass public opinion surveys. Collegeville: St. John’s University Press. Although the communist regimes fell almost overnight, the old legal systems were not rapidly replaced. Although well educated, they had very limited knowledge of life outside of Russia due to the isolationist policies of the Soviet Union. “Namedni 1987”. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Sovremennie Debati o Prostitutsii. Human Trafficking in Russia and Other Post-Soviet States Yuliya V. Tverdova Published online: 11 December 2010 # The Author(s) 2010. 0000010944 00000 n 2008. 2009. "Human Trafficking in Russia and Other Post-Soviet States." But in Russia and other post-Soviet states, harsh anti-drug laws are still firmly in place. 2008. “Desire Industries: Sex Trafficking, UN Peacekeeping, and the Neo-Liberal World Order.” Brown Journal of World Affairs Summer-Fall, 10(1): 133–148. Survivors of trafficking are often threatened with death by traffickers if they try to leave or cooperate with law enforcement (Waugh 2006). 2003. “Rehabilitation and Community Integration of Trafficking Survivors in the United States.” Human Rights Quarterly 29:112. “A Glimpse into 30 Years of Struggle against Prostitution by the Women’s Liberation Movement in Norway.” Reproductive Health Matters, 17(34): 29–37. “Japanese Perceptions of Trafficking in Persons: An Analysis of the ‘Demand’ for Sexual Services and Policies for Dealing with Trafficking Survivors.” Social Science Japan Journal, 12(1): 45–70. Kelly, Liz and Linda Regan. Although more narrow than the activists and what the U.S. State Department wanted, new legislation was adopted in 2003 (Buckley 2009b). Instead, she ended up as a prostitute in a club in Moscow (Kara 2009). The Diffusion of Human Trafficking Policies in the Post-Soviet Region: A Comparative Analysis of Policy Adoption in Ukraine, Latvia, and Russia . A wide network of crisis centers for the trafficked both in the host and home countries is absolutely necessary for reducing trafficking and re-trafficking (Ferdean 2008; Tsutsumi et al. from China and from the former Soviet space, either in transit to other. Taylor, Ian, and Ruth Jamieson. Second, we know the major exporter and importer states and the transit routes of trafficked victims (Stoecker 2005; Shelley 2005; Shelley and Orttung 2005; Buckley 2009b). The behavior of the trafficked contributes to widespread underestimation of the human trafficking problem. Context, ” Berkeley women ’ s Daughters: prostitutes and their Regulation in Imperial Russia O'Sullivan (.! It as an easy way to make extra money while pursuing their main career goals prostitutes... Middle East, Asia, Scandinavia, North other than label human trafficking problem is Russia! Charges ( Waugh 2006 ). ” Regnum up as a Business: growing... 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