An infinite amount of time can never truly pass (because infinite time would never run out). The Kalam cosmological argument is based on the concept of the prime-mover, introduced by Aristotle, and entered early Christian or Neoplatonist philosophy in Late Antiquity, being developed by John Philoponus. This argument is a modified form of the kalam argument.  Oppy states: Mackie affirms that there is no good reason to assume a priori that an uncaused beginning of all things is impossible. It was refined in the 11th century by Al-Ghazali (The Incoherence of the Philosophers), and in the 12th by Ibn Rushd (Averroes). Selected Answer: The universe Correct Answer: The universe Question 9 3 out of 3 points If successful, the Kalam Cosmological Argument rules out: Selected Answer: B and C Correct Answer: B and C. View full document. I discovered a YouTuber called Rationality Rules very recently. One of his many videos is The Kalam Cosmological Argument Debunked - (First Cause Argument Refuted). British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (1993): 623-639.  It reached medieval Christian philosophy in the 13th century and was discussed by Bonaventure, as well as Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theologica (I, q.2, a.3) and Summa Contra Gentiles (I, 13).  Al-Ghazali was unconvinced by the first-cause arguments of Al-Kindi, arguing that only the infinite per se is impossible, arguing for the possibility of the infinite per accidens. Lahore: Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 1963 pp. He adds a further point: that the cause must be a personal cause which itself is outside of nature. Craig. Craig William Lane, Reasonable Faith Christian Truth and Apologetics Third Edition 118-120, Craig William Lane, Reasonable Faith, Christian Truth and Apologetics, Third Edition, pp.120-124, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, A Universe from Nothing: Why There is Something Rather Than Nothing, ‘neo‐Lorentzian interpretation’ of Special Relativity, Professor Mackie and the Kalam Cosmological Argument, Must the Beginning of the Universe Have a Personal Cause? ), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 183, Oppy G (2002). In order to infer from this that the universe has a cause of its existence the proponent of the kalam cosmological argument must prove that the past is finite, that the universe began to … There are many slightly different formulations of the argument – we will consider two of them, and the various objections to the premises of these arguments. ??? If successful, the Kalam Cosmological Argument rules out. Islamic perspectives may be divided into positive Aristotelian responses strongly supporting the argument, such as those by Al-Kindi, and Averroes, and negative responses critical of it, including those by Al-Ghazali and Muhammad Iqbal. The cosmological argument was first introduced by Aristotle, but the argument was embraced by Christian, Jewish, and Muslim thinkers and philosophers. To be successful each of . In a review of Krauss's book, he states: Likewise, Craig has argued that the quantum vacuum, in containing quantifiable, measurable energy, cannot be described as 'nothing', therefore, that phenomena originating from the quantum vacuum cannot be described as 'uncaused'. Today, we'll look at the kalam cosmological argument. The Kalam Cosmological Argument William Lane Craig SUMMARY This article is the text of Dr. Craig's 2015 lecture at the University of Birmingham, where he did his doctoral studies which led to the revival of the kalam cosmological argument in our day. Moreover, that the Causal Principle cannot be extrapolated to the universe from inductive experience. He writes: Philosopher of science David Albert has criticised the use of the term 'nothing' in describing the quantum vacuum. Its historic proponents include Al-Kindi, Al-Ghazali, and St. One of my patrons brought this video to my attention and requested that I respond to it, so here we go. Moreland, James Porter, and William Lane. Philosopher Quentin Smith has cited the example of virtual particles, which appear and disappear from observation, apparently at random, to assert the tenability of uncaused natural phenomena. In a critique of Craig's book The Kalam Cosmological Argument, published in 1979, Michael Martin states:, Martin also claims that Craig has not justified his claim of creation "ex nihilo", pointing out that the universe may have been created from pre-existing material in a timeless or eternal state. Physical Review Letters 90 (15): 151301. But this argument also has an assumption drilled into it, that the rules before the universe as we know it (i.e, pre-big bang and all) operates on the same rules as it does now. Craig concludes that the cause of the existence of the universe is an "uncaused, personal Creator ... who sans the universe is beginningless, changeless, immaterial, timeless, spaceless and enormously powerful"; remarking upon the theological implications of this union of properties. (2007) Many Worlds in One: The Search for Other Universes, p.175, Aguirre A and Gratton S (2002). A. Çubukçu and H. Atay (Ankara: University of Ankara Press, 1962), pp. A first state of the material world cannot have a material explanation and must originate, Even if positing a plurality of causes prior to the origin of the universe, the causal chain must terminate in a cause which is absolutely first and, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 10:54. Faith and philosophy, 19(2). 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